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But the theory of government remained an overarching theoretical concept in continental Europe right to the end of the nineteenth century e. The sciences concerned with the state have been differentiated and specialized.
Public law, economics, political science, political sociology, geography, planning, and other academic disciplines have developed their own systems of reference for theory and analysis.
To some degree the scientific dialects have become rites of passage, restricting access to the mysteries of special knowledge to the initiated few.
Interdisciplinary discussion has become difficult and is neglected, assertions to the contrary notwithstanding. On the one hand it has benefited from compartmentalization. Thus the impressive system of the Viennese doctrine of so-called pure law came into being. And thus it became possible continuously to hone and refine legal techniques.
In continental Europe, lawyers traditionally do not deal with the state as an abstraction only. They also look at it as a reality. Yet most public law specialists are not interested in empirical studies. They prefer an intuitive approach.
Whilst this may be possible where the scholar is thoroughly acquainted with the object of his studies and where he is aware of his ideological biases, both these prerequisites do not always obtain.
But worse still is the habit of deducing normative findings from general principles such as democracy or federalism without having first analysed the extra-legal content of such concepts. And yet the instruments for such theoretical and empirical analysis are there.
They can be adapted from the methodology of political science and, to some extent, of political economy. Even some of the necessary information can be found there. They all claim that their findings are relevant to policy making.
They all want to furnish basic information for political and administrative decision making. But as these findings are only relevant to parts of the problem and as they may very often be interpreted contradictorily, what really happens is that researchers do not furnish basic data for decision making but produce arguments for preconceived ideas.
Obviously, this selective dealing with scientific data by political office-holders can never be and should never be quite eliminated.
Already the words used - special district and democracy - exemplify the different connotations they have for economists, lawyers and political scientists. Without mastering the different vocabularies nobody can solve the organizational problem. The former and still now predominant approach in the humanities emphasized relations of cause and effect.
They look for interrelations within a whole, the system, whose parts must not be treated in isolation. Systems theories do not build hierarchies.
The first influential theoretician was von Bertalanffy in the thirties. At about the same time Parsons introduced systems thinking into social science.
It is able to show and analyse systemic relationships between findings of different scientific disciplines. This is achieved by tying them together in an abstract network.Introduction: The research study evaluated the impact of entrepreneurial characteristics on the performance of small-scale manufacturing industries in Nigeria.
This is with a. Bermuda's International and Local Companies and Limited Partnerships, G to L Huge range, variety and purpose of locally incorporated offshore entities.
REFEREED MATERIAL Volume III, Issue 1, Journal of Asia Entrepreneurship and Sustainability kaja-net.com PROBLEMS OF SMALL AND MEDIUM SCALE ENTERPRISES IN NIGERIA It is worrisome that despite the incentives, favorable policies and regulations and preferential support by government aimed at improving small and medium scale enterprises, SMEs, has performed below expectation in Nigeria.
This thesis examined and analyzed the problems of establishing a small business enterprise in Nigeria, the western part of Africa. The first part of the research was. 1 1 An expanded version of this table, elaborating on statistical data used in the chapter, is included in the diskette accompanying this publication (see the Excel file directory RNF-DATA).
2 Sources are cited in full in Appendix Table References, p. Note: n.a.
= not applicable. APPENDIX TABLE REFERENCES. Abedullah. The role and nature .